Roman Numerals: Introduction, Conversion Rules, Examples 2023

July 29, 2022
Roman country

What is Roman Number?

The Roman numbers are a numeral system from ancient Rome and are recognized & written using the English alphabet letters.

For example, the letter “I” represents the number 1, “V” represents the number 5, and “X” represents the number 10. The use of Roman numbers can be seen in many places, such as in the names of emperors and popes, on clock faces, and in the numbering of book chapters and movie sequels. Roman numerals are still used today in some contexts, such as in the numbering of movie sequels, and in the numbering of Super Bowls, the World Series, and many others.

Only 23 letters of the English alphabet are used for writing. J, U, and W are not considered Roman numerals.

These letters are used:
A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, V, X, Y, and Z.

Roman Numbers Writing Rules

  • The basic symbols are I, V, X, L, C, D, & M, representing the values 1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500, & 1,000 respectively.
  • It uses a subtractive notation, meaning that certain letter combinations represent specific values. For example, “IV” represents the number 4, & “XLV” represents the number 45.
  • The numeral “I” can be placed before “V” & “X” to represent numbers 4 and 9, respectively.
  • The numeral “X” can be placed before “L” & “C” to represent numbers 40 and 90, respectively.
  • The numeral “C” can be placed before “D” & “M” to represent numbers 400 and 900, respectively.
  • It should be read from left to right, and the value of the numeral is determined by its position within the number, is usually written in uppercase letters, but it’s also possible to use lowercase letters, but it’s less common.
  • It does not have a symbol for zero.
  • Roman numerals do not have a symbol for a decimal point or a negative sign.

In this article, you will learn how to write numbers in Roman numerals using a chart containing numbers counting from 1 to 100.

roman numerals

Roman Numerals 1 to 100

English NumbersRoman NumbersValue of Number
1I1
2II1+1
3III1+1+1
4IV5-1
5V5
6VI5+1
7VII5+1+1
8VIII5+1+1+1
9IX10-1
10X10
11XI10+1
12XII10+1+1
13XIII10+1+1+1
14XIV10+5-1
15XV10+5
16XVI10+5+1
17XVII10+5+1+1
18XVIII10+5+1+1+1
19XIX10+10-1
20XX10+10
21XXI10+10+1
22XXII10+10+1+1
23XXIII10+10+1+1+1
24XXIV10+10+5-1
25XXV10+10+5
26XXVI10+10+5+1
27XXVII10+10+5+1+1
28XXVIII10+10+5+1+1+1
29XXIX10+10+10-1
30XXX10+10+10
31XXXI10+10+10+1
32XXXII10+10+10+1+1
33XXXIII10+10+10+1+1+1
34XXXIV10+10+10+5-1
35XXXV10+10+10+5
36XXXVI10+10+10+5+1
37XXXVII10+10+10+5+1+1
38XXXVIII10+10+10+5+1+1+1
39XXXIX10+10+10+10-1
40XL50-10
41XLI50-10+1
42XLII50-10+1+1
43XLIII50-10+1+1+1
44XLIV50-10+5-1
45XLV50-10+5
46XLVI50-10+5+1
47XLVII50-10+5+1+1
48XLVIII50-10+5+1+1+1
49XLIX50-10+10-1
50L50
51LI50+1
52LII50+1+1
53LIII50+1+1+1
54LIV50+5-1
55LV50+5
56LVI50+5+1
57LVII50+5+1+1
58LVIII50+5+1+1+1
59LIX50+10-1
60LX50+10
61LXI50+10+1
62LXII50+10+1+1
63LXIII50+10+1+1+1
64LXIV50+10+5-1
65LXV50+10+5
66LXVI50+10+5+1
67LXVII50+10+5+1+1
68LXVIII50+10+5+1+1+1
69LXIX50+10+10-1
70LXX50+10+10
71LXXI50+10+10+1
72LXXII50+10+10+1+1
73LXXIII50+10+10+1+1+1
74LXXIV50+10+10+5-1
75LXXV50+10+10+5
76LXXVI50+10+10+5+1
77LXXVII50+10+10+5+1+1
78LXXVIII50+10+10+5+1+1+1
79LXXIX50+10+10+10-1
80LXXX50+10+10+10
81LXXXI50+10+10+10+1
82LXXXII50+10+10+10+1+1
83LXXXIII50+10+10+10+1+1+1
84LXXXIV50+10+10+10+5-1
85LXXXV50+10+10+10+5
86LXXXVI50+10+10+10+5+1
87LXXXVII50+10+10+10+5+1+1
88LXXXVIII50+10+10+10+5+1+1+1
89LXXXIX50+10+10+10+10-1
90XC100-10
91XCI100-10+1
92XCII100-10+1+1
93XCIII100-10+1+1+1
94XCIV100-10+5-1
95XCV100-10+5
96XCVI100-10+5+1
97XCVII100-10+5+1+1
98XCVIII100-10+5+1+1+1
99XCIX100-10+10-1
100C100

Roman Numerals from 1 to 1000

1I
2II
3III
4IV
5V
6VI
7VII
8VIII
9IX
10X
11XI
20XX
30XXX
40XL
50L
60LX
70LXX
80LXXX
90XC
100C
200CC
300CCC
400CD
500D
600DC
700DCC
800DCCC
900CM
1000M
1001MI

Converting Roman Numerals to Numbers

Romans used these letters for Unit place numbers that are the same for all numbers for their Unit place.

  • I for 1
  • II for 2
  • III for 3
  • IV for 4
  • V for 5
  • VI for 6
  • VII for 7
  • VIII for 8
  • IX for 9

Each number has 1 to 9 digits in a Unit placed in numbers, only the tenth, hundredth, thousand places, etc. are changed each time.

There is a simple rule to write this number, suppose you have to write 11 in roman numerals, then you have to write its tenth and unit place numbers. 11 is the sum of 10+1, X is used to present 10, and I is used to giving 1, so the number is XI.

Rule 1: If there is a larger number in the form of tens, hundreds, etc., then the number after it is added separately.

  • VIII = 8 (5+1+1+1)
  • LX = 60 (50+10)
  • MCC = 1200 (1000+100+100)

Rule 2: If there is a smaller number in the form of tens, hundreds, etc., then the number after that is subtracted from the leftmost number.

  • IV = 4 (5-1)
  • IX = 9 (10-1)
  • XL = 40 (50-10)

Solved Examples

Ex 1: Write 88 in roman numerals

Solution:

88 = 50 + 10 + 10 + 10 + 5 + 1 + 1 + 1

= LXXXVIII

Ex 2: Convert 569 into roman numerals

Solution:

569 = 500 + 50 + 10 + 9

= DLXIX

Ex 3: 79 in roman numerals

Solution:

79 = 50 + 10 + 10 + 10 – 1

50 = L

10 = X

10 – 1 = IX

So, 50 + 10 + 10 + 10 – 1 = LXXIX

Ex 4: Convert XCIII roman numerals into numbers

Solution:

XC = 100 – 10 = 90

III = 3

So, XCIII is 93

Ex 5: 1000 in roman numerals

Solution:

1000 = M

M is used to represent 1000

Ex 6: 10000 in roman numerals

Solution:

10000 = X̅

Ex 7: 101 in roman numerals

Solution:

101 = 100 + 1

100 = C

1 = I

= CI

Ex 8: 11 in roman numerals

Solution:

11 = 10 + 1

10 = X

1 = I

= XI

Ex 9: 111 in roman numerals

Solution:

111 = 100 + 10 + 1

100 = C

10 = X

1 = I

= CXI

Ex 10: 13 in roman numerals

Solution:

13 = 10 + 3

10 = X

3 = III

= XIII

Ex 11: 14 in roman numerals

Solution:

14 = 10 + 4

10 = X

4 = 5 – 4 = V – I = IV

Ex 12: 15 in roman numerals

Solution:

15 = 10 + 5

10 = X

5 = V

= XV

Ex 13: 16 in roman numerals

Solution:

16 = 10 + 5 + 1

10 = X

5 = V

1 = I

= XVI

Ex 14: 17 in roman numerals

Solution:

17 = 10 + 5 + 2

10 = X
5 = V

2 = II

= XVII

Ex 15: 18 in roman numerals

Solution:

18 = 10 + 5 + 3

10 = X

5 = V

3 = III

= XVIII

Ex 16: 19 in roman numerals

Solution:

19 = 10 + 9

10 = X

9 = IX

= XIX

Ex 17: 1942 in roman numerals

Solution:

1942 = 1000 + 900 + 40 + 2

1942 = 1000 + (1000 – 100) + (50 – 10) + (1 + 1)

1000 = M

900 = 1000 – 100 = M – C = CM

40 = 50 – 10 = L – X = XL

2 = II

= MCMXLII

Ex 18: 1957 in roman numerals

Solution:

1957 = 1000 + 900 + 50 + 5 + 2

1000 = M

900 = 1000 – 100 = M – C = CM

50 = L

5 = V

2 = II

1957 = MCMLVII

Ex 19: 1963 in roman numerals

Solution:

1963 = 1000 + 900 + 50 + 10 + 3

1963 = 1000 + (1000 – 100) + 50 + 10 + (1+1+1)

1963 = M + (M – C) + L + X + III

1963 = M + CM + L + X + III

1963 = MCMLXIII

Ex 20: 1964 in roman numerals

Solution:

1964 = 1000 + 900 + 50 + 10 + 4

1964 = 1000 + (1000 – 100) + 50 + 10 + (5 – 1)

1964 = M + (M – C) + L + X + (V – I)

1964 = M + CM + L + X + IV

1964 = MCMLXIV

Ex 21: 569 in roman numerals

Solution:

569 = 500 + 50 + 10 + 9

569 = D + L + X + IX

569 = DLXIX

Article Tags:
Article Categories:
Maths

Leave a Reply